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Filtering by Category: composting

What to Compost

Janis Covey

Fruits and vegetables in paper bags.

We know that after the last blog, you ran right outside, found the spot for your compost pile and cleared out the area. You are ready to compost everything in sight! But what should you actually compost? We’ve got all the details here.

There are two distinct types of composting materials and they are referred to as “Greens” and “Browns”.  Browns are the carbon-rich materials and Greens are the nitrogen-rich materials.  Your compost pile needs to have a ratio of 2-3 parts Browns to 1 part Greens.  If the ratio is off with too much Greens then the breakdown of the pile will be slow, alternatively, too much Browns will cause odor.

Fall leaves in a pile.

Let’s discuss Browns first, the primary job of the Browns is to be a food source for the soil-dwelling organisms that work with the microbes to break down the materials in your compost pile.  They also add bulk to and allow air to circulate through the compost pile.

Browns would include:

·       Fall leaves

·       Pine needles


·       Twigs, tree branches/bark but nothing too big (chipped wood is good)

·       Straw or hay

·       Sawdust

·       Corn stalks

·       Paper (newspaper, writing/printing paper, paper plates and napkins, coffee filters but nothing with a glossy coating on it)

·       Plain Corrugated cardboard

. Kosmatology mailers and Bug Balm tubes


Greens are the materials that are rich in nitrogen or protein. They tend to heat up a compost pile because they help the microorganisms grow and multiply quickly.  Greens consist mostly of wet or recently growing plants.  Greens are usually green or came from a plant that was green at one time.  There are exceptions to this rule, such as egg shells.

Greens would include:

Coffee Grounds.

·       Grass clippings

·       Coffee grounds/tea bags

·       Vegetable and fruit scraps

·       Trimmings from plants

·       Annual weeds that haven't gone to seed

·       Eggshells (crush first)

Follow these rules, make sure your ratios are correct and watch your pile… decompose! We wish you success in your endeavors to help the Earth and hope we have inspired you to give composting a try! If you have any questions or comments, please leave them below!

How to start composting

Janis Covey

Three compost bins, one on left made of metal fencing, middle and right made of wood. Text reads “Composting: How to get started.”

I’m sure just the idea of composting seems overwhelming, but we’re here to help you get started and make the journey easy.  You’ll be slinging “compost lingo” like a pro by the end of this series. First off, do not feel that you need to buy any fancy composting material, all you need is a spot of bare soil in a shady spot to start.  After you’ve picked your area and cleared the ground you’re ready to go.


1.      Create a layer of twigs or straw a few inches deep on the bare soil.  This helps with drainage and keeps the flow of air through the compost pile.

2.     Add your compost materials but alternate between moist and dry layers.  Moist ingredients include food scraps, tea bags, seaweed, etc.  Dry materials include straw, leaves, sawdust and wood ashes.  With wood ashes and sawdust, make sure to sprinkle in thin layers, or it will create clumps and slow the breakdown.

Dead Leaves.

3.     Add a nitrogen source to activate the compost pile and speed up the process.  Good nitrogen sources would be manure, clover, buckwheat, wheat grass or grass clippings.

4.     Keep the compost moist by either watering it occasionally or let the pile be exposed to rain.

5.     Cover the compost pile.  Covering helps retain moisture and heat.  Covering can also prevent the compost from being saturated by rain.  You want the compost to be moist but not soaked.

Gardening tools hanging on a wall.

6.     Turn the compost pile every few weeks.  This helps aerate the pile.  As we discussed in last week’s blog, oxygen is required for the chemical reaction to turn the food waste into fertilizer.  This step is vital.

7.     Once you’ve established your compost pile, add new materials by mixing them in rather than adding them to the top.

Next time we’ll discuss what you should and shouldn’t add to your compost and how to get the ratios correct.

If you missed the first blog in the series click here to read Composting and Why It’s Important

What is Composting and Why is it Important?

Janis Covey

Rotting food waste with leaves and paper.

Simply put, composting is the breakdown of organic matter such as food waste, leaves, and cut grass which naturally fertilizes the soil.  Compost helps energize the soil, research shows that compost enhances the ability of vegetable plants to stand up to common diseases.  Compost also helps the soil retain moisture.  It is even thought that it may improve the flavor and nutritional content of fruits and vegetables. 

Garbage truck lifting trash can to be emptied on a suburban street.

Composting is also a great way to reduce your carbon footprint, by reducing the amount of trash you create.  This is important because it is estimated that an American family produces approximately 20 pounds of food waste every month.  When this food waste is not composted, it has to be transported from the home to a landfill.  This is an extremely inefficient process.  The average garbage truck only gets about three miles per gallon due to the constant starting and stopping as they move from house to house.  Once the garbage is collected locally it can travel up to 500 miles before reaching its final destination, the landfill.  Having food waste handled this way is very inefficient since it could have been handled locally via composting. 

Large cubes of compacted trash at a landfill.

Food waste in the landfill creates another problem not seen with composting: the production of greenhouse gases.  This is due to the fact that oxygen is required for the chemical reaction that turns food waste into nutrient dense compost.  In a landfill, garbage is sealed into airtight enclosures.  This is done to prevent toxins from leaching into groundwater, but this also causes food waste to decompose anaerobically (without oxygen), which produces a gas mixture of methane and carbon dioxide; both of these are greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases trap heat in our atmosphere contributing to global warming.    Methane is an extremely detrimental greenhouse gas since it is 25-34 times more powerful than carbon dioxide at trapping heat.  Due to the anaerobic decay of food waste in landfills, every pound of food thrown away creates 3.8 pounds of greenhouse gas emissions. The good new is that by creating a compost pile, you are cutting down those emissions.

Plants growing in garden beds and pots in a garden.

If you’re like me, these statistics make you want to start composting yesterday, so we decided to do a series of blog posts to get you going on your composting journey. While composting does involve a little effort, we promise you can handle it with minimal interruption to your daily life and without devoting a ton of space in your home or yard! Come back next post to read about how to get started!